Understanding the Anatomy of the Heart

The heart has four chambers – two atria and two ventricles. The walls of the chambers are primarily made of specific heart muscle.

During each pulse both of the atria contract first to pump blood to the ventricles. Subsequently both ventricles contract to pump blood from the heart to the arteries. All these are:

  • The mitral valve – between the left atrium as well as the left ventricle.
  • The tricuspid valve – between the right ventricle and also the right atrium.
  • The pulmonary valve – between the right ventricle as well as the pulmonary artery (the main artery that takes blood from the heart to the lungs to collect oxygen).
  • The aortic valve – between the left ventricle and the aorta (the main artery that takes oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body).

The valves be sure that when the atria or ventricles contract, the blood flows the proper way through one’s heart and in the arteries.

What’s heart valve disease?

A valve that’s diseased or damaged can influence the flow of blood through one’s heart. There are only two main kinds of valve trouble:

  • Valve stenosis. This implies the opening of the valve is narrowed along with the valve doesn’t open completely. So, there’s some limitation in the flow of blood through the valve.
  • Valve regurgitation. This implies the valve will not shut correctly and there is backflow of blood during the leaky valve.

The valves may be affected with these issues. Yet, the mitral and aortic valves would be the ones that most typically become diseased.

Do you know the indications of heart valve disease?

Fundamentally, the more narrow or leaky a valve is, the larger the issue will probably be. Some minor narrowing or leakiness can cause no difficulties or symptoms. Yet:

  • The heart needs to pump more difficult to get blood past the narrowing – when the narrowing is serious.
  • The heart needs to pump harder to pump the blood that leaks back, as well as the conventional quantity of blood flowing through the heart – if leakiness is serious.

In both instances, this may put a strain in one’s heart. There might be a rise in pressure behind the affected valve. This rear pressure could cause blood and fluid to accumulate in the lungs or lower section of the body (depending which valve is changed).

The symptoms that could develop include:

  • Shortness of breath. Primarily on exertion at first, but might happen at rest if it’s more serious.
  • Tiredness, dizziness or episodes of fainting.
  • Unusual heart rhythms which may cause other issues as well as palpitations.
  • Swelling of tissues as a result of fluid blockage.
  • Chest pain or angina.

Various complications may develop, with regards to the difficulty of the situation as well as the valve changed.

Causes of Heart Valve Disease

There are various kinds of valve disorder; some sorts could be there at birth (congenital), while others might be obtained later in life.

  • Heart valve tissue may degenerate with age.
  • Valvular heart disease may be caused by rheumatic fever.
  • Bacterial endocarditis, an infection of the inner lining of the heart muscle and heart valves (endocardium), is a cause of valvular heart disease.
  • High blood pressure and atherosclerosis may damage the aortic valve.
  • A heart attack may damage the muscles that control the heart valves.
  • Other illnesses for example carcinoid tumours, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or syphilis may damage one or even more heart valves.
  • Methysergide, a medicine used in the treatment of migraine head aches, plus some diet drugs may encourage valvular heart disease.
  • Radiation therapy (used to take care of cancer) may be related to valvular heart disease.

What’s the treatment for heart valve disease?

When the narrowing or leakiness is light, and you’ve got no symptoms, then you tend not to want any routine treatment. Various medications might be suggested to alleviate the symptoms, in case you develop symptoms or complications. Operation to elongate, fix or replace the valve might be required in a few situations.

Operative treatment has significantly improved the prognosis for most instances of serious valve disorder. A tube having a balloon in the end is put into the crotch and fed to the aorta. When the balloon is inflated, the blood flow to the heart is ceased for long enough to provide the surgeon an opportunity to work in the heart. Operation has a rather good success rate.